John W. Warnock

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Political Economy of Continentalism

 University of Regina

Department of Political Science

 Political Economy of Continentalism

Political Science 231-060 
Spring session 1998  M - TH, 9:30 am to 10:45 am   Lab Building 206

Instructor: Dr. John W. Warnock                         


NOTE: This course is required for all majors in political science. 




This course will be an introduction to political economy as an academic discipline in the context of an examination of the relationship between Canada and the United States. Originally social science was interdisciplinary, beginning with Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and others. While the European tradition carried over to Canada, a particular Canadian political economy evolved which reflected Canada's status as a white settler country under the restrictions of colonial and imperial powers. During the Vietnam war period, a neo-Marxist dependency approach to political economy developed, followed by a more traditionalist Marxist school.

While students will be given a background to Canadian-American relations, particularly through the readings, the class will focus on the integration of Canada with the United States that developed during World War II and after. Most important, of course, is the recent Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and the North American Free Trade Agreement.


COURSE REQUIREMENTS:    Students are expected to prepare a research paper for the course which will count for 50% of the final mark; it is due on June 15. Selection of a topic must be made in consultation with the instructor. There will be a final exam which will count for 50% of the final mark.




(1) Edelgard E. Mahant and Graeme S. Mount. An Introduction to Canadian American Relations. Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1989. 2nd edition. Paperback.    


(2) Christopher D. Merrett. Free Trade; Neither Free Nor about Trade. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1996. Paperback.    


(3) Gary Teeple. Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press, 1995. Paperback.     


(4) Other reading will be placed on reserve for the course in the Main Library.




May 6 - 7.  Introduction to the course. What is political economy? Organization of the research project.   



Wallace Clement and Glen Williams, "The New Canadian Political Economy."  
Mahant and Mount, Chapters 1 through 4. 


May 11 - 14.  The Canadian tradition of political economy.                     


Janine Brodie, "Theories of Regional Self Balance."
Brodie, "Theories of Regional Imbalance." Mahant and Mount, Chapter 5 & 6. 


May 18 - 21. The Impact of World War II and the development of Canadian foreign and defence policy.                       


Paul Phillips and Stephen Watson, "From Mobilization to Continentalism."
Stephen Clarkson, "NATO, NORAD and Canada's Military Options."  
Mahant and Mount, Chapter 7.  


May 25 - 28.  Developing the north-south dependency: trade, foreign investment and culture.                      



Glen Norcliffe, "Foreign Trade in Goods and Services."
Alan D. Macpherson, "Shifts in Canadian Direct Investment Abroad and Foreign Direct Investment in Canada."
Mahant and Mount, Chapters 8 - 10.


June 1 - 4. The international economic crisis, neoliberalism and U.S. geopolitical strategy.                      


Gary Teeple, Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform.


June 8 - 11. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and the North American Free Trade Agreement.


Christopher Merrett, Free Trade: Neither Free Nor about Trade.


June 15 - 18  Developing alternatives to globalization and continentalism.                       



Complete Teeple and Merrett.




Students are to prepare a research paper for the course. It should follow the traditional format for a social science research paper, including footnotes and a bibliography. The maximum length of the paper is to be ten pages of text or around 2500 words. The paper will count for 50% of the final mark. Students are expected to use scholarly sources. Students should select their topics as soon as possible. The research paper is due June 15, 1998.

Because of limited book resources in the library, students will find it necessary to rely heavily on scholarly journals, periodicals and even newspapers. Students should know how to use the CD-ROM resource services and the interlibrary loan service for journal articles. Copies of most journal articles not in our library can be obtained from the University of Alberta Library in three days. The Library is in the process of adopting on line internet access to scholarly journals. There is a great deal of basic material on globalization and free trade which can be accessed through the Internet.

Students are expected to adopt an analytical and critical approach to the research topic. This means that students should be able to identify and use both "mainstream" and "critical" sources. Students are expected to examine the different perspectives to an issue and then provide a conclusion which reflects their own opinion. The paper should not take the form of an advocacy brief.


Topics are to be chosen in consultation with the instructor.



Selected bibliography of Canadian-American relations 


Anthony, Brian. "Negotiating Canadian Culture: What's at Stake?" Canadian Business Review, 13, No. 2, Summer 1986.
 Audley, Paul. Canada's Cultural Industries. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. for the Canadian Institute for Economic     Policy, 1983.
 An Automotive Strategy for Canada. Report of the Federal Task Force on the Canadian Motor Vehicle and Automotive Parts Industries. Ottawa: Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce, May 1983.
 Axworthy, Thomas S. "Power and Plenty: The Politics of Free Trade." Canada Not For Sale: The Case Against Free Trade. Toronto: General Publishers, 1987.
 Bamber, Greg J., and Russell D. Lansbury, eds. International and Comparative Industrial Relations. London: Allen & Unwin, 1987.
 Banting, Keith, ed. The State and     Economic Interests. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Barichello, Richard R. "Canada-U.S. Free Trade Negotiations: Anticipating the Effects on Canadian Agriculture." Unpublished paper, University of British Columbia, January 27, 1986.
 Baranson, Jack. "Assessment of Likely Impact of a U.S.-Canadian Free Trade Agreement upon the Behaviour of U.S. Industrial Subsidiaries in Canada." Toronto: Government of Ontario, November 1985.
 Barber, Clarence, and John C.P. McCallum. Unemployment and Inflation: The Canadian Experience. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. for the Canadian Institute for Economic Policy, 1980.
 Bercuson, David J., ed. Canada and the Burden of Unity. Toronto: Macmillan, 1977.
 "Beyond Free Trade." Dollars & Sense, No. 115, April 1986.
 Bluestone, Barry. "Abandoning Jobs and Industries in North America." Policy Alternatives, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Winter 1984.
 Bluestone, Barry and Bennett Harrison. The Deindustrialization of America.New York:Basic Books, 1982.
 Boltho, Andrea, ed. The European Economy: Growth and Crisis. London: Oxford University Press, 1982.
 Bowles, Samuel, David M. Gordon, and Thomas E. Weisskopf. Beyond the Wasteland: A Democratic Alternative to Economic Decline. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984.
 Britton, John N.H. "Location Perspectives on Free Trade for Canada." Canadian Public Policy, 4, No. 1, Winter, 1978.
 Britton, John N.H., and James M. Gilmour. The Weakest Link: A Technological Perspective on Canadian Industrial Development. Ottawa: The Science Council of Canada, October 1978.
 "Building Self-Reliance in Canada." GATT-Fly Report, 7, No. 1, February 1987.
 Burtless, Gary. "Inequality in America: Where Do We Stand?" The Brookings Review, Summer 1987.
 Byers, Roderick, B. "Canadian Defence and Defence Procurement: Implications for Economic Policy." In G.R. Winham, ed. Selected Problems in Formulating Foreign Economic Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Calvert, John. Government Limited: The Corporate Takeover of the Public Sector in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1984.
 Cameron, Duncan, ed. The Free Trade Papers. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1986.
 Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops. Ethical Choices and Political Challenges: Ethical Reflections on the Future of Canada's SocioEconomic Order. Ottawa: CCCB, December 1983.Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops. Ethical Choices and Political Challenges: Free Trade at What Cost? Ottawa: Concacan Inc., 1987. Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops. Ethical Relfections on the Economic Crisis. Ottawa: Concacan Inc., 1983.
 Canadian Labour Congress. "Full Employment and Fairness-the Workers' Agenda for Canada." Document No. 18. 16th Constitutional Convention, 1986.
 Canadian Labour Congress. "Our Canada or Theirs? Workers Confront the Corporate Blueprint." Document No. 19. 16th Constitutional Convention, 1986.
 Canadian Labour Congress. Position Paper on Canada-United States Free Trade. July 1985.
 Canadian Labour Congress. The Transportation Acts of 1986. Ottawa, March 26, 1987.
 Clark-Jones, Melissa. A Staple State: Canadian Industrial Resources in the Cold War. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.
 Clarkson, Stephen. Canada and the Reagan Challenge. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1985.
 La coalition Qu6becois d'opposition au libre-6change. La politique sociale Canadienne et le libre-6change. Montreal: CSN, CFL, CTC, UPA, 1986.
 Cohen, Marjorie. Free Trade and the Future of Women's Work. Toronto: Garamond Press and the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1987.
 Confederation of Canadian Unions. Too High a Price: A Policy Paper on "Free" Trade.       Vancouver: CCU, 1987.
 Conference of Socialist Economists. The Alternative Economic Strategy: A Labour Movement Response to the Economic Crisis. London: CSE Books, 1980.
 Crotty, James R. "On Keynes and Capital Flight." Journal of Economic Literature, 21, March 1983.
 Crozier, Michael, Samuel P. Huntington, and J. Watanuki. The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission. New York: New York University Press, 1975.
 Djao, A.W. Inequality and Social Policy. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, 1983.
 Drache, Daniel, and Duncan Cameron, eds. The Other Macdonald Report. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1985.
 "The Economic Crisis." Special Issue of Studies in Political Economy, No. 11, Summer 1983.
 Eisenstein, Zillah. "Liberalism, Feminism and the Reagan State." In Ralph Miliband et al., eds. Socialist Register 1987: Conservatism in Britain and America. London: Merlin Press, 1987.
 Flaherty, D.H., and W.R. McKercher, eds. Southern Exposure: Canadian Perspectives on the United States. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1986.
 Fowke, Vernon C. The National Policy and the Wheat Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1957.
 GATT-Fly. Free Trade or Self Reliance. Toronto: GATT-Fly, 1987.
 Ghosh, Jayati, "Developing Countries and World Economy." Economic and Political Weekly, 21, No. 41, October 11, 1986.
 Gindin, Sam. "Free Trade and Competitiveness: Developing a Left Alternative." Working Papers, No. 4. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1985.
 Globerman, Steven, and Aidan Vining. "Canadian Culture under Free Trade." Canadian Business Review, 13, No. 2, Summer 1986.
 Glyn, Andrew, "Capital Flight and Exchange Controls." New Left Review, No. 155, January-February 1986.Gonick, Cy. The Great Economic Debate. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1987.
 Gonick, Cy. Inflation or Depression: The Continuing Crisis of the CanadianEconomy. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1975.
 Grayson, J. Paul. Plant Closures and De-Skilling: Three Case Studies. Ottawa: Social Science Council of Canada, 1986.
 Green, Francis. "Some Macroeconomic Omens for Reagan and Thatcher." Capital and Class, No. 30, Winter 1986.
 Gunderson, Morley, et al., eds. Unemployment: International Perspectives. Toronto: Centre for Industrial Relations by the University of Toronto Press, 1987.
 Hager, Wolfgang. "Little Europe, Wider Europe and Western Economic Co-operation." Journal of Common Market Studies, 21, Nos. 1 & 2, September/December, 1982.
 Heilbroner, Robert L. The Worldly Philosophers. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961.
 "The Hollow Corporation." Special Report. Business Week, No. 2935, March 3, 1986.
 Holmes, John, and Colin Leys, eds. Frontyard, Backyard: The Americas in Global Crisis. Toronto: Between-the-Lines, 1987Kahler, Miles. "European Protectionism in Theory and Practice." World Politics, 36, No. 4, July 1985.
 Katzenstein, Peter J. Small States in World Markets. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.
 Keohane, Robert. After Hegemony: Co-operation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
 Keynes, John Maynard. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1964.
 Keynes, John Maynard. "National Self Sufficiency." Yale Review, 22, June 1933.
 Kirsh, Sharon L. Unemployment: Its Impact on Body and Soul. Toronto: Canadian Mental Health Association, 1984.
 Krieger, Joel. Reagan, Thatcher and the Politics of Decline. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.    -
 Kuttner, Robert. The Economic Illusion. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1984.
 Laxer, James. Leap of Faith: Free Trade and the Future of Canada. Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1986.
 Labor Research Association. Economic Notes, various issues, 1986 and 1987.
 Lanoie, Claude. "Comparisons of the Canadian and United States Food and Beverage Industries." Food Market Commentary, 7, No. 3, September 1985.
 LaPierre, Laurier, ed. If You Love This Country: Facts and Feelings on Free Trade. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1987.
 Lazar, Fred. The New Protectionism: Non-Tariff Barriers and Their Effects on Canada. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. for the Canadian Institute for Economic Policy, 1981.
 Leslie, Peter. Federal State, National Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.
 Lipsey, Richard G. and Murray G. Smith. Canada's Trade Options. Toronto: C.D. Howe Institute, 1985.
 Litvak, Isaiah A. "Free Trade with the U.S.: The Conflicting Views of Canadian Business." Business Quarterly, Spring 1986.
 Lumsden, Ian, ed. Close the 49th Parallel. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970.
 Lundberg, Erik. "The Rise and Fall of the Swedish Model." Journal of Economic Literature, 23, No. 1, March 1985.
 MacDonald, Neil B. Locational Advantages in the Farm Machinery Industry. Ottawa: Royal Commission on Farm Machinery, 1968.
 MacEwan, Arthur. "International Debt and Banking: Rising Instability within the General Crisis." Science & Society, 50, No. 2, Summer 1986.
 Macmillan, Katie. The Canadian Common Market. Calgary: Canada West Foundation, October 1985.
 McQuaig, Linda. Behind Closed Doors. Toronto: Penguin Books of Canada, 1987.Matthews, Ralph. The Creation of Regional Dependency. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983.
 Miliband, Ralph, et al., eds. Socialist Register 1987: Conservatism in Britain and America: Rhetoric and Reality. London: The Merlin Press, 1987.
 Nayar, Deepak. "International Relocation of Production and Industrialization in LDCs." Economic and Political Weekly, 18, No. 31, July 30, 1983.
 Nelson, Joyce. "Canada Dry: Pipedreams and Freshwater Politics." This Magazine, 21, No. 5, October 1987.
 Nelson, Joyce. "Losing It in the Lobby." This Magazine, 20, October/ November 1986.
 New Democratic Party. "An Alternative Strategy: Fair Trade vs. Free Trade." Ottawa, March 1985.
 Nome, Kenneth, ed. Disparities and Interregional Adjustment. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 North-South Institute. Women in Industry. Ottawa: North-South Institute, 1985.
 Ontario Public Service Employees Union. Free Trade and the Public Sector. Toronto: OPSEU, August 1986.
 Pammet, Jon. H., and Brian W. Tomlin, eds. The Integration Question. Toronto: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
 Parboni, Ricardo. "The Dollar Weapon: From Nixon to Reagan." New Left Review, No. 158, July/August 1986.
 Phillips, Paul, and Stephen Watson. "From Mobilization to Continentalism: The Canadian Economy in the Post-Depression Period." In Michael S. Cross and Gregory S. Kealey, eds. Modern Canada: 1930-1980s. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1984.
 Pinder, John, ed. National Industrial Strategies and the World Economy. Towowa, N.J.: Allanheld, Osmun, 1982.
 Radwanski, George. Ontario Study of the Service Sector. Toronto: Ministry of Treasury and Economics, December 1986.
 Ray, D. Michael. "The Location of United States Manufacturing Subsidiaries in Canada." Economic Geography, 17, No. 3, July 1971.
 "The Reindustrialization of America." Special Issue. Business Week, No. 2643, June 30,      1980.
 Riddell, W. Craig, ed. Adapting to Change: Labour Market Adjustment in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Rotstein, Abraham. Rebuilding from Within; Remedies for Canada's Ailing Economy. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. for the Canadian Institute for Economic Policy, 1984.
 Rugman, Alan M., and Sheila Douglas. "The Strategic Management of Multinationals and World Product Mandating." Canadian Public Policy, 12, June 1986.
 Saul, John Ralston. "The Secret Life of the Branch-Plant Executive." Report on Business Magazine, 4, No. 7, January 1988.
 Saunders, Christopher, ed. The Political Economy of New and Old Industrial Countries. London: Butterworth, 1981.
 Savoie, Donald J. Regional Economic Development. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986.
 Sharp, Mitchell. "More Free Trade." Policy Options, 8, No. 5, June 1987.
 Sharpe, Andrew. "Can Canada Compete?" Canadian Business Review, 12, No. 4, 1985; 13, No. 1, Spring 1986.
 Shipman, William D. Trade and Investment Across the Northeast Boundary. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1986.
 Sideri, S. Trade and Power. Rotterdam: Rotterdam University Press, 1970.
 Sinclair, Scott. "Free Trade and Regional Development Policy." Toronto: Coalition      Against Free Trade, September 10, 1987, unpublished paper.
 Sklar, Holly, ed. Trilateralism. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1980.
 Stairs, Denis, and Gilbert R. Winham, eds. The Politics of Canada's Economic Relationship with the United States. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Statistics Canada. Arts and Culture: A Statistical Profile. Catalogue No. 87-527.
 Steger, Debra P. "Recent Developments in Canada-U.S. Trade Relations." Review of International Business Law, 1, No. 1, April 1987.
 Stone, Frank. Canada, the GATT and the International Trade System. Montreal: The Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1984.
 Therborn, Goran. Why Some Peoples are More Unemployed than Others. London: Verso, 1986.
 Tichy, Gunther. "Strategy and Implementation of Employment Policy in Austria." Kyklos, 37, No. 3, 1984.
 "31 Million Reasons to Fight Unemployment." OECD Observer, No. 144, January 1987.
 Turk, Jim. Free Trade with the United States: The Implications for Canada. Publication No. 16. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1986.
 Turk, Jim. "GATT Will Get Us Too---The Implications of Multilateral Free Trade." Free Trade or Self-Reliance. Toronto: GATT-Fly, 1987.
 Wachtel, Howard. The Money Mandarins. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986.Walters, Peter. "Distributing Decline: Swedish Social Democrats and the Crisis of the Welfare State." Government & Opposition, 20, No. 3, Summer 1985.
 Warnock, John W. Free Trade and the New Right Agenda. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1988.
 Warnock, John W. "Free Trade Fantasies: The Case of the Farm Implements Industry." This Magazine, 9, Nos. 5 & 6, November-December 1975.
 Warnock, John W. Partner to Behemoth: The Military Policy of a Satellite Canada. Toronto: New Press, 1970.
 Warnock, John W. The Politics of Hunger: The Global Food System. Toronto: Methuen, 1987.
 Warnock, John W. Profit Hungry: The Food Industry in Canada. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1978.
 Warren, Jack W. "Auto Part Manufacturers Battle Imports." Canadian Business Review, 12, No. 4, Winter 1985.
 Watkins, Mel. "The Staple Theory Revisited." Journal of Canadian Studies, 12, No. 5, Winter 1977.
 Whalley, John, ed. Canada-United States Free Trade. Toronto: Universityof Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Williams, Glen. Not for Export: Toward a Political Economy of Canada's Arrested Industrialization. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1986.
 Wilson, Elizabeth. "Thatcherism and Women: After Seven Years." In Ralph Miliband et al., eds. The Socialist Register 1987: Conservatism in Britain and North America. London: Merlin Press, 1987.
 Wolfe, David A. The Delicate Balance: The Changing Economic Role of the State in Canada. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1980.
 Wolfe, David A. "Mercantilism, Liberalism and Keynesianism: Changing Forms of State Intervention in Capitalist Economies." Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, S, Nos. 1 & 2, Winter/Spring 1981.       

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