John W. Warnock

Social Work in Rural Settings



University of Regina

Faculty of Social Work

Social Work 419-001 - Social Work in Rural Settings
Regina, Fall semester 1998
Thursdays, 11:30 am to 2:15 pm, Room 611, Library Building

Instructor: Dr. John W. Warnock


COURSE DESCRIPTION: Rural social problems and issues as well as the political and economic settings in which they occur will be explored. Theories and concepts useful in the performance of rural social work will be a major focus.


COURSE OBJECTIVES: The course will provide an opportunity to consider the issues and conditions of life that people face in rural and isolated communities which are characteristically based on agriculture and resource extraction. These pose special problems for human service workers and service users. These areas are heavily impacted by government social and economic policies. The focus of the course will be on Saskatchewan, but it will draw on the experience of other areas as well. Through readings, class discussion, and research students will gain some insight into the role that social workers can play in this environment.  




(1) Ken Collier. Social Work with Rural Peoples. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1993. 2nd edition. Paperback. 


(2) Christopher Lind. Something's Wrong Somewhere; Globalization, Community and the Moral Economy of the Farm Crisis. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 1994. Paperback. 


Other readings will be placed on reserve for this class in the Main Library. Shorter pieces will be handed out in class.


GENERAL EXPECTATIONS: Regular attendance is expected. This course uses the "adult education" model in which the experiences, knowledge, previous reading, opinions, views and insights of all participants are valued. Class participation is essential to gain the greatest benefit from this course. Assignments are expected on time. Class preparation in advance is necessary.  This is an academic course. It is expected that students will type or write their papers legibly and use good English. Students must document their work with footnotes and a bibliography. Papers should be proofread to avoid simple errors. Students should be familiar with the University's position on plagiarism.




 Major research paper                                            40%
 Group presentation                                               10%
 Journal                                                                  20%
 Final examination                                                  30%




Between September 10 and October 29 the student shall select two news items each week that are relevant to social work in rural and remote areas. The items can be from newspapers, magazines, journals, television, the internet, or radio. The student will summarize the issue and then provide a commentary explaining how she/he thinks the information will impact social work in rural and remote areas. The journals will be due on October 29.




Each student will prepare a social science research paper, 15 - 20 pages in length, double spaced. Students are expected to use the usual references: government documents, books, pamphlets, journal articles, magazines, newspapers and the internet. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze how a structural situation affects people who live in an area, what problems are created, what services are available, and how it impacts on rural practitioners. Students will choose to do their research in one of the areas listed below and will work with others in that topic area as a group. Class time will be devoted to general discussion of the issues in each area. Group presentations will be made in the class on November 26 and December 3. The general areas are as follows:
     (1) The impact of the mining industry on people living in northern Saskatchewan.
     (2) The impact of the forestry industry on people in the
         northern part of Saskatchewan.
     (3) The impact of changes in federal and provincial social
         programs on seasonal workers and their communities.
     (4) The impact of resource extraction development on
         Aboriginal communities.
     (5) The industrialization of agriculture and its impact on
         farm communities.
     (6) The status of women in resource communities or rural

         farm and small town communities.  


Individual papers may be handed in following the group's presentation. All papers are due on December 3.  




The final examination will be held on December 15, at 2:00 pm. It will be an essay examination requiring analytical answers which combine facts with theory and interpretation.




(1) The journal will be graded on the quality of the articles chosen, their relevance to rural social work, and comment on why this event will impact on rural service delivery. The analysis should include the student's observations, insights and opinions. 


(2) The research paper will take into account the quality of the analysis and content presented, evidence of research undertaken, the extent and quality of the sources, evidence of understanding of the theoretical questions, and original thought and observation. 


(3) The final exam will be graded on demonstrated ability to integrate information and theory with concrete examples and ideas. The student should demonstrate that she/he has done the readings and learned something from the class discussions and presentations. Original thought and analysis is expected. Students are expected to use good English.




September 10    Introduction to the course.

             Collier, Chapters 1, 2 & 3.
             Carolyn Sachs, "What is Rural?" 3 pp.
             Video: In Her Chosen Field (28 min) September 17    The hinterland economy.
             Janine Brodie, "Theories of Regional Imbalance." 20 pp. (Reading #1, on reserve)
 September 24    Structure of farming in the era of neoliberalism: industrial agriculture and domestic commodity production.

             Lind, Introduction & Chapter 1.
             Thomas N. Urban, "Industrialization of the World's Food System." 3 pp.
             Craig Palmer and Peter Sinclair, "Domestic Commodity Production." 6 pp. 


October 1    Resource towns - one industry towns.

             One of the three studies from the Northern British Columbia Women's Task Force Report on
             Single Industry Resource Communities: Kitimat, Fraser Lake or Mackenzie. (Reading #2, on reserve)
             Video:  No Life for a Woman (27 min)

 October 8    Persistence of patriarchal values in rural and remote communities.

             Elizabeth Teather, "Farm Women in Canada, New Zealand and Australia Redefine their Rurality." 12 pp.
             Gerda Lerner, "The Origins of Patriarchy." 2 pp.
 October 15    Colonialism, modernization and First Nations peoples.

             Vic Satzewich and Terry Wotherspoon,  "Aboriginal Peoples and Economic Relations." 30 pp.                     
 October 22    Impact of neoliberalism on rural Canada.

             Lind, Chapters 2 & 3. 

 October 29    Farmworkers as a growing rural class.

            Gurcharn S. Basran, Charan Gill and Brian D. MacLean, "Farmworkers and Their Children." 6 pp.
             B. Singh Bolaria, "Farm Labour, Work Conditions and Health Risks." 6 pp.
             Fiona Wilson: "Downgraded Labour." 4 pp.
             Video:  Harvest of Shame. (45 min.)             


November 5    Political responses to external domination.

             George Melnyk, "The West as Protest: The Cycles of Regional Discontent." 9 pp.
              William Carroll, "Social Movements and Counter-Hegemony in a Canadian Context." 6 pp. 


November 12    Community development as an alternative strategy.

             Lind, Chapter 4.
             Paul Wilkinson and Jack Quarter, "The Evangeline Co-operative Tradition." 25 pp.
             Video: We're the Boss. (29 min.) 


November 19    Class presentations by groups. 


November 26    Class presentations by groups. 


December 3       Class presentations by groups.


ADDITIONAL RESOURCES: The following is a selected list of references which students might helpful in their research.
(1) General rural sociology sources:


 Basran, G.S. and David A. Hay, eds. 1988. The Political Economy of Agriculture in Western Canada. Toronto: Garamond Press.

Bollman, Ray D., ed. 1992.  Rural and Small Town Canada. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing. 

Browne, William P. et al. 1992. Sacred Cows and Hot Potatoes; Agrarian Myths in Agricultural Policy. Boulder:  Westview Press. 

Buttel, Frederick H. and Howard Newby, eds. 1980. The Rural Sociology of Advanced Societies; Critical Perspectives. London: Croom Helm.

Hay, David A. and G.S. Basran, eds. 1992. Rural Sociology in Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press. 

Kneen, Brewster. 1989. From Land to Mouth; Understanding the Food System. Toronto: N.C. Press. 

Magdoff, Fred, Frederick H. Buttel and John Bellamy Foster, eds. 1998. "Hungry for Profit; Agriculture, Food and Ecology. Monthly Review, Vol. 50, July-August. Special edition. 

Webber, Marlene. 1992. Food for Thought. Toronto: Coach House Press.   

Winson, Anthony. 1992. The Intimate Commodity; Food and Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex in Canada. Toronto: Garamond Press.


(2) Regional disparities in Canada. 


Brodie, Janine. 1990. The Political Economy of Canadian Regionalism. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 

Burrill, Gary and Ian McKay, eds. 1987.  People, Resources, and Power; Critical Perspective on Underdevelopment and Primary Industries in the Atlantic Region. Frederickton: Acadiensis Press.  

Matthews, Ralph. 1983.  The Creation of Regional Dependency. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


(3) Globalization and neoliberal policies. 


Allahar, Anton L. and James E. Cote. 1998. Richer and Poorer; The Structure of Inequality in Canada. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. 

Basran, Gurcharn, Charan Gill and Brian D. MacLean. 1995. Farmworkers and Their Children. Vancouver: Collective Press.  

Bonano, Alessandro et al., eds. 1994. From Columbus to Conagra; The Globalization of Agriculture and Food. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. 

Canada. Human Resources Development Canada. 1994.  Agenda: Jobs and Growth; Improving Social Security in Canada. Hull: Human Resources Development Canada, October.

Johnson, Andrew F., Stephen McBride and Patrick J. Smith, eds. 1994.  Continuities and Discontinuities; The Political Economy of Social Welfare and Labour Market Policy in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  

"Keep Canada Caring: Speak out for Social Programs." 1994. Action Canada Dossier, No. 40, Fall. Special Issue. 

McBride, Stephen and John Shields. 1997. Dismantling a Nation; The Transition to Corporate Rule in Canada. Halifax: Fernwood Books.  

Palmer, Craig and Peter Sinclair. 1997.  When the Fish are Gone; Ecological disaster and Fishers in Northwest Newfoundland. Halifax: Fernwood Publishers.  

Riches, Graham and Gordon Ternowetsky, eds. 1990. Unemployment and Welfare: Social Policy and the Work of Social Work. Toronto: Garamond Press. Teeple, Gary. 1995. Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press.


(4) Single industry towns in remote areas.


Bowles, Roy T., ed. 1982. Little Communities and Big Industries: Studies in the Social Impact of Canadian Resource Extraction. Toronto: Butterworths Canada Ltd.

Budgen, Mark. 1983. "Tumbler Ridge: Planning the Physical and Social Development of a New Community. Habitat, Vol. 26, pp. 8-12. 

Coates, Ken and William Morrison. 1992. The Forgotten North; A History of Canada's Provincial Norths. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company. 

Detomasi, Don D. and John W. Gartrell, eds. 1984. Resource Communities: A Decade of Disruption. Boulder: Westview Press. 

Lucas, Rex A. 1971. Minetown, Milltown, Railtown: Life in Canadian Communities of Single Industry. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  

Storey, Keith and Mark Shrimpton. 1989. Long Distance Commuting in the Canadian Mining Sector. Kingston: Queen's University.


(5) Patriarchal values. 


Coontz, Stephanie and Peta Henderson, eds. 1986. Women's Work, Men's Property; The Origins of Gender and Class. London: Verso. 

di Leonardo, Micaela, ed. 1991. Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge; Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

Lerner, Gerda. 1986. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Mandel, Nancy. 1995. Feminist Issues; Race, Class and Sexuality. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc. 

Mies, Maria. 1986. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale; Women in the International Division of Labour. London: Zed Press. 

Sachs, Carolyn. 1996. Gendered Fields; Rural Women, Agriculture and Environment. Boulder: Westview Press.


(6) Colonialism, racism and First Nations peoples.


Adams, Howard. 1995. A Tortured People; The Politics of Colonization. Penticton: Theytus Books.  

Churchill, Ward. 1997. A Little Matter of Genocide; Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present. San Francisco: City Lights Books.  

Dobbin, Murray. 1981. The One-and-a-Half Men; The Story of Jim Brady and Malcolm Norris, The Metis Patriots of the Twentieth Century. Vancouver, New Star Books. 

Dyck, Noel. 1991. What is the Indian "Problem"; Tutelage and Resistance in Canadian Indian Administration. St. John's: Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University. 

Frideres, James S. 1998. Aboriginal Peoples in Canada; Contemporary Conflicts. Scarborough: Prentice Hall Allyn and Bacon Canada. 5th

Satzewich, Vic and Terry Wotherspoon. 1993. First Nations; Race, Class and Gender Relations. Scarborough: Nelson Canada. 

Wright, Ronald. 1993. Stolen Continents; The "New World" Through Indian Eyes. Toronto: Penguin Books.
(7) Political resistance to external domination. 


Carroll, William K. 1992. Organizing Dissent; Contemporary Social Movements in Theory and Practice. Toronto: Garamond Press. 

Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1968. Agrarian Socialism; The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan. New York: Doubleday. 

Macpherson, C.B. 1962. Democracy in Alberta; Social Credit and the Party System. Toronto:  University of Toronto Press.  

Makahonuk, Glen. 1997. Class, State and Power: The Struggle for Trade Union Rights in Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Canadian Union of Public Employees. 

Melnyk, George, ed. 1992. Riel to Reform; A History of Protest in Western Canada. Saskatoon: Fifth House Publishers. 

Robin, Martin. 1968. Radical Politics and Canadian Labour, 1880-1930. Kingston: Queen's University Press.  

Scott, Alan. 1990. Ideology and the New Social Movements. London: Unwin Hyman.  

Sharp, Paul F. 1997. The Agrarian Revolt in Western Canada. Regina: University of Regina, Canadian Plains Research Centre. Reprint with new introductions.


(8) Community development strategies. 


Fulton, M.E., ed. 1990. Co-operative Organizations and Canadian Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  

MacPherson, Ian. 1979. Each for All; A History of the Co-operative Movement in English Canada, 1900 - 1945. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Quarter, Jack. 1992. Canada's Social Economy. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company. 

Ross, David P. 1986. From the Roots Up; Economic Development as if Community Mattered. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company for the Canadian Council on Social Development. 

Wilkinson, Paul and Jack Quarter. 1996. Building a Community-Controlled Economy; The Evangeline Co-operative Experience. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


(9) Important journals. Human Services in the Rural Environment

 Rural Sociology
 Regional Studies
 Journal of Rural Studies
 Sociologia Rurales
 Small Town
 Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
 Canadian Journal of Sociology
 Canadian Review of Social Policy

The Industrialization Process in Canada



University of Regina

Department of Sociology and Social Science 

Sociology 203-001     The Industrialization Process in Canada
Winter semester 1999  MWF 1:30 - 2:20  p.m.  

Classroom Building CL418
Instructor: Dr. John W. Warnock   


Course description:  


The origins and development of the industrialization process in Canada.  This course will consider the impact of industrialization on social relations, institutional structures, values systems, and patterns of regional development. The course will introduce the student to the main currents in the Canadian tradition of political economy: the classic staples theory and metropolitan domination of hinterlands, the dependency approach which developed during the 1960s and 1970s,  the expansion of traditional Marxism in the 1970s and 1980s, and the introduction of a feminist approach in the 1980s. This debate has focused on the place of Canada in the international capitalist system and the particular relationship of Canada to the United States.


With the expansion of Marxism and feminism in the 1980s, issues of class and gender received more attention. The latter part of the course will examine the impact on Canada of the shift from the Keynesian regime of capital accumulation to the neoliberal regime.


Texts for the course: 


Gordon Laxer, ed. Perspectives on Canadian Economic Development; Class, Staples, Gender and Elites. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1991. Paperback.


Stephen McBride and John Shields. Dismantling A Nation; The Transition to Corporate Rule in Canada. Halifax: Fernwood books, 1997. 2nd edition. Paperback. 


A few other readings will be put on overnight reserve for the course in the Main Library.




There will be a mid-term exam on February 12. It will be worth 30 marks. Students will prepare a research paper/essay which will be due on April 12. It will be no longer than 2,000 words. Topics are to be selected in consultation with the instructor. It will be worth 30 marks. The final exam, scheduled for April 21, is worth 40 marks.


Course outline: 


January 6 - 8   Introduction to the class; what is political economy?            


              Gordon Laxer, Introduction, pp. xi - xxvii.
             Wallace Clement and Glen Williams, "Introduction", The New Canadian
             Political Economy. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1989,
              pp. 3-11. On reserve. 


January 11 - 15    Canada within the mercantilist system.            


              David A. Wolfe, "Mercantilism, Liberalism and Keynesianism: Changing
             Forms of State Intervention in Capitalist Economies," Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory,
             V, Winter/Spring, 1981, pp. 69-96. On reserve.  


January 18 - 22    W.A. Mackintosh and the modernization theory of development.            


             Laxer, Part I: Essays by Ian Drummond, John McCallum and
             W.A. Mackintosh. 


January 25 - 29    The staples theory of Canadian development.            


             Laxer, Part II: Essays by Daniel Drache, Harold A. Innis and  Melville H. Watkins. 


February 1 - 5      The National Policy as state-directed development.            


              Laxer, Part III: Essays by T. W. Acheson, Melville H. Watkins and Glen Williams.  


February 8 - 12     The development of social class in Canada.            


              Laxer, Part V: Two essays by H. Clare Pentland.
 February 12         Mid-term exam. 


February 15 - 19   The role of gender in Canadian development.            


               Laxer, Part V: Essays by Marjorie Cohen, Bonnie Fox and Sylvia Van Kirk. 


February 22 - 26   Mid Term Break 


March 1 - 4   Keynesian political economy and World War II.          


                Paul Phillips and Stephen Watson, " From Mobilization to Continentalism:The Canadian Economy in the Post-Depression Period," 

                 Michael S. Cross and  Gregory S . Kealey,    Modern Canada, 1930 - 1980s.  Kealey, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1984, pp. 46-78. 


March 8 - 12   Post World War II: The Welfare State.        

               McBride and Shields, Chapters 1 & 2. 


March 15 - 19 Dependency Theory and Canadian development.        


               Laxer, Part III: Essay by Kari Levitt. 


March 22 - 26 Marxist theory and Canadian development.        


                Laxer, Part IV:  Essays by Gordon Laxer and Leo Panitch. 


March 29 - 31: The Macdonald Royal Commission and neoliberalism.        


                McBride and Shields, Chapters 3 & 4. 


April 5 - 9 Constitutional changes and the welfare state.        


                McBride and Shields, Chapters 5 & 6. 


April 12 - 14 The free trade regime.        


               McBride & Shields, Chapters 7 - 9.
 April 12    Research paper due. April 21     Final Exam 2 - 5 p.m.

Introduction to the Mass Media



University of Regina

Department of Sociology and Social Sciences

Social Studies 110-001 - Introduction to Mass Media

Instructor:  Dr. John W. Warnock                                          

Winter, 1999  


This course is an introduction to the analysis of the role of the mass media in society, with emphasis on Canada.  Special attention will be given to the role of the mass media and communications in relation to the state, ideology, the socialization of the individual, the economic and political development of Canada, and the structure of power.  Students will be introduced to different social science theories on the role of the mass media in state societies. The class is a requirement for all students planning to enter the School of Journalism.


Readings for the course:


Rowland Lorimer and Jean McNulty, Mass Communications in Canada. Toronto:  Oxford University Press, 1996. 3rd edition. 

Other readings will be handed out in class or placed on the Social Studies 110 overnight reserve in the Main Library. 


There will be a mid term examination on Thursday, February 12. It will count for 25% of the final mark for the course.


There will be one essay assignment, due on Thursday, April 9. It will count for 25% of the final mark.


The final exam will count for 50% of the final mark.

Class Schedule and Readings:


January 6, 8.      Introduction to the Course.


                        Morton Fried, "On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State."


January 13, 15     The State and social control. 


                           Clifford Jolly and Fred Plog, "The Rise of the State."
                           John Bodley, "Religion in the Service of the State."

January 20, 22     The origin of patriarchy.  


                          Marvin Harris, "The evolution of human gender hierarchies."


 January 27, 29     Social Control and the role of religion.


                           Randall Collins, "The Sociology of God."

February 3, 5      Ideology and domination.  


                         John B. Thompson, "The Concept of Ideology." 

 February 10      Socialization and structural functionalism.


                        Murray Knuttila, "Socialization." Chapter 4 in Sociology Revisited.

                        Copies of this book are on two-hour reserve in the Main Library.


February 12        Mid-term examination.


February 15         Mid Term Reading Break. No classes. 


February  24, 26  Harold Innis and the metorpolitan-hinterland model of culture and the mass media.

                          Lorimer & McNulty, Chapters 3 and 11.
 March 3, 5        Structural Functionalist theory of the mass media in Canada.  


                        John Porter, "The Ideological System: The Mass Media."  

                        Lorimer & McNulty, Chapter 1.

March 10, 12     Noam Chomsky and the propaganda model of the mass media. 


                        Noam Chomsky, "The Propaganda Model."

                        Lorimer & McNulty, Chapters 2 and 5.

March 17, 19     The problem of American domination of the mass media in Canada.


                        Lorimer & McNulty, Chapters 6 and 10.

March 24, 26    Concentration of ownership of the mass media in Canada.


                       Lorimer & McNulty, Chapters 7 & 8.
                       Robert W. McChesney, "The Global Media Giants; the Nine Firms that Dominate the World." Extra, Nov-Dec 1997, pp. 11-18.

March 31, April 2    Mass media in times of crises and the concept of the gatekeepers. 


                       A. Kent McDougall, "Boring Within the Bourgeois Press." Monthly Review, Vol. 40, Nos. 6 & 7, November-December 1988.

April 7, 9       Canadian mass media in the era of the new technologies.


                    Lorimer & McNulty, Chapters 9 and 12.


April 9        Essay due. 


April 14      Final exam


Essay Assignment: Due Date: April 9, 1999 Prepare an essay of around 5 pages of text (1200 words), double-spaced, and typewritten if possible. The essay is worth 25 marks. There will be discussion in class of the individual topics. 


Sociologists and anthropologists have focused on the role of ideology in creating social cohesion in egalitarian society and  providing social control in state societies which are characterized by significant differences in power due to inequalities of wealth, income, status, race and gender.  


In the present era of neoliberalism, there is a world wide trend by governments to cut back the welfare state, one of the primary techniques used in industrialized societies to reduce conflict among disaffected groups and classes. As a result governments have had to rely more on coercive techniques to achieve social control.


But in addition, the mass media plays a very important role in creating social control. This course focuses on three sociological theories which attempt to explain the role of the media:


     (1) The structural functionalist theory, represented by John Porter's The Vertical Mosaic.
     (2) Conflict theory, represented by John B. Thompson's Rethinking Ideology.
     (3) The propaganda model, represented by Noam Chomsky's Manufacturing Consent. 


Within the context of the ideological role of the mass media in the creation of social control, address one of the following topics in your essay: 


(1) The expansion of spectator sports, particularly on television. 


(2) The role of talk show radio or television. 


(3) Newspaper coverage of youth crime. 


(4) Newspaper coverage of minorities. 


(5) Sex role stereotyping in either programming or advertising on Canadian television.




(a) The essay should include an introduction defining the question you are addressing and a conclusion summarizing your findings. 


(b) The student must carry out a research survey of the appropriate media and describe the approach used. 


(c) You must include an analysis of what you have found. Explain which of the three sociological theories of the mass media listed above appears to best explain your findings. 


(d) Students are expected to use footnotes and a bibliography, where relevant, and to write clearly using good English. 


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: For the above essay topics, there are individual readings on the Social Studies 110 reserve in the Main Library which illustrate some aspects of the issue. They are as follows: 


(1) Douglas Kellner, "Sports, Media Culture, and Race - Some Reflections on Michael Jordan," Sociology of Sport Journal, XIII, July 1996, pp. 458-467; Mariah Burton Nelson, The Stronger Women Get, the More Men Love Football. New York:  Harcourt Brace & Co, 1994.


(2) Wayne Munson, All Talk; The Talkshow in Media Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.  


(3) Bernard Schissel, "The Study of the Hatred of Children." Chapter 1 in Blaming Children.  


(4) John Miller, "How Canada's Daily Newspapers Shut Out Minorities," Media, I, No. 2, July 1994, pp. 30-32. 


(5) Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Task Force on Sex-Role Stereotyping in the Broadcast Media.  Final Report, 1982, 1985. 


(6) Mallory Wober and Barry Gunter. Television and Social Control. New York:  St. Martin's Press, 1988.

John B. Thompson, The Concept of Ideology:  


   "The analysis of ideology, according to the conception which I shall propose, is primarily concerned with the ways in which symbolic forms intersect with relations of power. It is concerned with the ways in which meaning is mobilized in the social world and serves thereby to bolster up individuals and groups who occupy positions of power. Let me define this focus more sharply: to study ideology is to study the ways in which meaning serves to establish and sustain relations of domination."

Herbert Schiller, Information and the Crisis Economy:   


"The media's great myths. These myths are the media's greatest manipulative triumphs. They create the ‘symbolic environment' for the society as a whole. The myths penetrate the innermost recesses of consciousness and affect the basic values, attitudes, and beliefs - and eventually volition and action themselves - of viewers,  listeners, and readers.    


     (1) the myth of individualism and personal choice;
     (2) the myth that key social institutions are neutral instead of serving concentrated wealth and power;
     (3) the myth that human nature does not change, despite the myth makers' successes in helping to change it;
     (4) the myth of the absence of serious social conflict; and
     (5) the myth of media pluralism.

Social Structure of Rural Societies



University of Regina

Department of Sociology and Social Science

Sociology 217:001   Social Structure of Rural Societies

Instructor: Dr. John W. Warnock                                                    

Fall semester, 2003
Monday Evenings, 7 to 9:45 p.m.   



The course will be an introduction to the changing structures of rural life. It will examine pre-capitalist and peasant agricultural societies, the impact of colonialism on rural societies, rural and remote areas and their relationship to urban centres, the relationship between domestic commodity producers and the capitalist market, and the move towards industrial agriculture. There will be an analysis of the structure of patriarchy in rural and remote areas. While emphasis will be on rural communities in agricultural areas, coverage will also be given to other resource extraction economies in remote rural areas. Special emphasis will be on Saskatchewan and Canada. The course will also look at various theories of rural social change.




There is no text for the course. A series of readings have been compiled through the university's Cancopy system and will be available in the University of Regina bookstore.  Additional readings will be assigned from the following  journal. Five copies are on the Sociology 217 reserve in the Main Library for overnight use: 


Fred Magdoff, Frederick H. Buttel and John Bellamy Foster, eds. "Hungry for Profit; Agriculture, Food and Ecology." Monthly Review, Vol. 50, July/August 1998. Special issue.  Other special reading materials will be distributed in the class.


 A research paper is required, and it will represent 50 percent of the mark for the course, due on November 24, 2003. The research process will be discussed in class. There will be a mid-term exam for the course, which will be on October 20; it will count for 25 percent of the mark for the course. There will be a final exam for the course; it will be worth 25 percent of the final mark.


 September 8:  Introduction to the course. What is rural sociology? The origins of agriculture.

 Reading Assignment:

 Howard Newby and Frederick H. Buttel, " Toward a Critical Rural Sociology."  
 Ellen M. Wood, "The Agrarian Origins of capitalism. In Magdoff, pp. 14-31. 

 September 15    Social structure of pre-capitalist agricultural  communities: mode of  production and the economic surplus.
 Reading assignment:

 John W. Warnock, "Economics, Political Economy and Human Society."             

September 22  The impact of colonialism and European capitalism on rural and agricultural areas..
Reading assignment:

 John Madeley, "Third World Agriculture: Who Grows What?"
 George L. Beckford, "Plantations in Third World Economy."

September 29   Resource extraction, remote communities and enclave development.
Reading assignment:

Roy T. Bowles, "Single Industry Resource Communities in Canada's North."

October 6    Domestic commodity production and the politics of populism.
Reading assignment:

Craig Palmer and Peter Sinclair, "Introduction to When the Fish are Gone."                     

John W. Warnock, "Populism of the Political Left and Right."                    

Research topics due.  


October 13  Patriarchy and rural societies: the origin of patriarchy, theories, and its persistence in rural societies.
Reading assignment:

 Sally Shortall, "Women and Farming Organizations."
Marit S. Haugen, "Rural Women's Family and Property Law: Lessons from Norway."                    

John W. Warnock, "The Persistence of Patriarchy."  
October 20 Mid Term exam. Class discussion of research papers and topics.
October 27 Rural communities as hinterland areas.
Reading assignment:

 Janine Brodie, "Theories of Regional Imbalance."      
 John W. Warnock, "Regional Disparity and Hinterland Areas.                

November 3  The industrial agrifood system and international food chains.
Reading assignment:

 William D. Heffernan, "Agriculture and Monopoly Capital." In Magdoff et al, pp. 46-54.
 R.C. Lewontin, "The Maturing of Capitalist Agriculture: Farmer as Proletarian, in Magdoff, pp. 72-84.
 Thomas N. Urban, "Industrialization of the World's Food System."                 

November 10    Downgraded labour: women and farm workers in rural communities.
Reading assignment:

Fiona Wilson, "Workshops as Domestic Domains."   
B. Singh Bolaria, "Farm Labour, Work Conditions and Health Risks."
Enzo Mingione and Enrico Pugliese, "Rural Subsistence, Migration, Urbanization, and the New Global    Food Regime."

November 17.    Ecological issues in rural, agricultural Canada.
Reading assignment:

 Miguel A. Altieri, "Ecological Impacts of Industrial Agriculture and the Possibility for Truly Sustainable Farming." In Magdoff, pp. 60-71.
Gerald Middendorf et al, "New Agricultural Biotechnologies: The Struggle for Democratic Choice." In Magdoff et al, pp. 85-96.
 John Bellamy Foster and Fred Magdoff, "Liebig, Marx, and the Depletion of Soil Fertility: Relevance for Today's Agriculture." In Magdoff, pp. 32-45.                


November 24.    Is sustainable agriculture possible in the era of free trade?
Reading assignment:

Philip McMichael, "Global Food Politics." In Magdoff et al, pp. 97-111.
John Madeley, "Trade Liberalization." 15 pp.
Darrin Qualman and Nettie Wiebe, "Structural Adjustment of Canadian Agriculture." 15 pp.            Research papers due.

December 1 Popular resistance to capitalist, industrial agriculture and the neoliberal order.
Reading  assignment:

Elizabeth Henderson,  "Rebuilding Local Food Systems from the Grassroots Up." in Magdoff et al, pp. 112-124.
Joel Kovel, "Beyond Populism."
Walden Bello, " The Multiple Crises of Global Capitalism."  




Students will be asked to do a research paper within one of the following topic areas. These areas have been chosen because they represent key contemporary issues in rural Saskatchewan. The instructor will set aside time in class for a general discussion of the papers and the topic areas.  The students are to choose a research paper by October 6. Topics should be approved by the instructor.

Students are reminded that they are to follow the University's regulations as stated  in the undergraduate calendar. Assignments are expected to be on time. Special permission may be granted by the instructor for late assignments or missing an examination. It is expected that students will follow the general social science format in writing the research paper.

The research paper accounts for 50 percent of the mark for the class. It is expected that the student will research and write a serious paper. It should be no longer than 5,000 words, or roughly 20 pages, typed and double spaced.




(1) The impact of the free trade agreements on the prairie grain marketing system, meat production and rural communities. This would include increased dependence on the U.S. market, the demise of the marketing board system, the weakening of the co-operative system, and the expansion of large agribusiness corporations in the prairie market. What is the impact of increasing foreign ownership and control of the agribusiness sector?    


(2) The introduction of large corporate hog barns to the prairie economy. Their introduction raises issues of environmental pollution, economic centralization, vertical integration with agribusiness corporations, and worker health and safety issues. Given their historic populist roots, why has the NDP government given this development such strong support? How have rural communities in Saskatchewan responded to this development?     


(3) Biotechnology and biodiversity are major international issues in the food and development area. Biotechnology is well developed in Saskatchewan, where it has strong support from the provincial government and agribusiness. Cross genetic breeding is very controversial; in Saskatchewan it is done mainly to develop crops which can tolerate stronger applications of herbicides. It is seen by critics as the opposite of sustainable agriculture. On the world wide basis biotechnology is opposed by groups supporting small farmers, the rights of "third world" farmers, supporters of ecological agriculture and biodiversity, and those opposed to patenting plants and animal life. It  has strong support from the large chemical and seed corporations, most governments, and the agricultural research community. Farm organizations are divided on the issue.    


(4) The persistence of patriarchy in rural Canada and Saskatchewan is a continuing issue. Why is it that patriarchal values are so deeply entrenched in rural areas? How does this affect women in rural Saskatchewan?  What role do rural institutions play in protecting patriarchal values? Why is it that the strongest support for REAL Women in Canada is found in rural Saskatchewan?

In recent years rural sociologists have begun to research and document how rural masculinities are created and protected. At the core of this is the dominant hegemonic position, that farmers are men, that men should own the agricultural land, and that farms should be passed on from father to son. In the United States, rural sociologists have begun to examine the rise of the right-wing militia groups as one form of rural masculinity. This is an area ripe for research in Saskatchewan.     


(5) What are the problems associated with resource extraction industries in Saskatchewan?  The extraction of uranium, potash, coal, oil, natural gas and wood products takes place primarily in isolated rural communities. What is the impact of the present system of resource extraction on Aboriginal communities?     


(6) Aboriginal communities in the Saskatchewan farm belt. How have Aboriginal communities, based in rural Saskatchewan, adjusted to the shift to producing goods for consumption and the market? How have Aboriginal communities organized agricultural production? What is the experience of Aboriginal communities in dealing with mainstream farm and agribusiness organizations? How are they organizing the use of new land acquired under the Treaty Land Entitlement settlements?

Political Economy of Continentalism

 University of Regina

Department of Political Science

 Political Economy of Continentalism

Political Science 231-060 
Spring session 1998  M - TH, 9:30 am to 10:45 am   Lab Building 206

Instructor: Dr. John W. Warnock                         


NOTE: This course is required for all majors in political science. 




This course will be an introduction to political economy as an academic discipline in the context of an examination of the relationship between Canada and the United States. Originally social science was interdisciplinary, beginning with Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and others. While the European tradition carried over to Canada, a particular Canadian political economy evolved which reflected Canada's status as a white settler country under the restrictions of colonial and imperial powers. During the Vietnam war period, a neo-Marxist dependency approach to political economy developed, followed by a more traditionalist Marxist school.

While students will be given a background to Canadian-American relations, particularly through the readings, the class will focus on the integration of Canada with the United States that developed during World War II and after. Most important, of course, is the recent Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and the North American Free Trade Agreement.


COURSE REQUIREMENTS:    Students are expected to prepare a research paper for the course which will count for 50% of the final mark; it is due on June 15. Selection of a topic must be made in consultation with the instructor. There will be a final exam which will count for 50% of the final mark.




(1) Edelgard E. Mahant and Graeme S. Mount. An Introduction to Canadian American Relations. Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1989. 2nd edition. Paperback.    


(2) Christopher D. Merrett. Free Trade; Neither Free Nor about Trade. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1996. Paperback.    


(3) Gary Teeple. Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press, 1995. Paperback.     


(4) Other reading will be placed on reserve for the course in the Main Library.




May 6 - 7.  Introduction to the course. What is political economy? Organization of the research project.   



Wallace Clement and Glen Williams, "The New Canadian Political Economy."  
Mahant and Mount, Chapters 1 through 4. 


May 11 - 14.  The Canadian tradition of political economy.                     


Janine Brodie, "Theories of Regional Self Balance."
Brodie, "Theories of Regional Imbalance." Mahant and Mount, Chapter 5 & 6. 


May 18 - 21. The Impact of World War II and the development of Canadian foreign and defence policy.                       


Paul Phillips and Stephen Watson, "From Mobilization to Continentalism."
Stephen Clarkson, "NATO, NORAD and Canada's Military Options."  
Mahant and Mount, Chapter 7.  


May 25 - 28.  Developing the north-south dependency: trade, foreign investment and culture.                      



Glen Norcliffe, "Foreign Trade in Goods and Services."
Alan D. Macpherson, "Shifts in Canadian Direct Investment Abroad and Foreign Direct Investment in Canada."
Mahant and Mount, Chapters 8 - 10.


June 1 - 4. The international economic crisis, neoliberalism and U.S. geopolitical strategy.                      


Gary Teeple, Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform.


June 8 - 11. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and the North American Free Trade Agreement.


Christopher Merrett, Free Trade: Neither Free Nor about Trade.


June 15 - 18  Developing alternatives to globalization and continentalism.                       



Complete Teeple and Merrett.




Students are to prepare a research paper for the course. It should follow the traditional format for a social science research paper, including footnotes and a bibliography. The maximum length of the paper is to be ten pages of text or around 2500 words. The paper will count for 50% of the final mark. Students are expected to use scholarly sources. Students should select their topics as soon as possible. The research paper is due June 15, 1998.

Because of limited book resources in the library, students will find it necessary to rely heavily on scholarly journals, periodicals and even newspapers. Students should know how to use the CD-ROM resource services and the interlibrary loan service for journal articles. Copies of most journal articles not in our library can be obtained from the University of Alberta Library in three days. The Library is in the process of adopting on line internet access to scholarly journals. There is a great deal of basic material on globalization and free trade which can be accessed through the Internet.

Students are expected to adopt an analytical and critical approach to the research topic. This means that students should be able to identify and use both "mainstream" and "critical" sources. Students are expected to examine the different perspectives to an issue and then provide a conclusion which reflects their own opinion. The paper should not take the form of an advocacy brief.


Topics are to be chosen in consultation with the instructor.



Selected bibliography of Canadian-American relations 


Anthony, Brian. "Negotiating Canadian Culture: What's at Stake?" Canadian Business Review, 13, No. 2, Summer 1986.
 Audley, Paul. Canada's Cultural Industries. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. for the Canadian Institute for Economic     Policy, 1983.
 An Automotive Strategy for Canada. Report of the Federal Task Force on the Canadian Motor Vehicle and Automotive Parts Industries. Ottawa: Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce, May 1983.
 Axworthy, Thomas S. "Power and Plenty: The Politics of Free Trade." Canada Not For Sale: The Case Against Free Trade. Toronto: General Publishers, 1987.
 Bamber, Greg J., and Russell D. Lansbury, eds. International and Comparative Industrial Relations. London: Allen & Unwin, 1987.
 Banting, Keith, ed. The State and     Economic Interests. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Barichello, Richard R. "Canada-U.S. Free Trade Negotiations: Anticipating the Effects on Canadian Agriculture." Unpublished paper, University of British Columbia, January 27, 1986.
 Baranson, Jack. "Assessment of Likely Impact of a U.S.-Canadian Free Trade Agreement upon the Behaviour of U.S. Industrial Subsidiaries in Canada." Toronto: Government of Ontario, November 1985.
 Barber, Clarence, and John C.P. McCallum. Unemployment and Inflation: The Canadian Experience. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. for the Canadian Institute for Economic Policy, 1980.
 Bercuson, David J., ed. Canada and the Burden of Unity. Toronto: Macmillan, 1977.
 "Beyond Free Trade." Dollars & Sense, No. 115, April 1986.
 Bluestone, Barry. "Abandoning Jobs and Industries in North America." Policy Alternatives, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Winter 1984.
 Bluestone, Barry and Bennett Harrison. The Deindustrialization of America.New York:Basic Books, 1982.
 Boltho, Andrea, ed. The European Economy: Growth and Crisis. London: Oxford University Press, 1982.
 Bowles, Samuel, David M. Gordon, and Thomas E. Weisskopf. Beyond the Wasteland: A Democratic Alternative to Economic Decline. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984.
 Britton, John N.H. "Location Perspectives on Free Trade for Canada." Canadian Public Policy, 4, No. 1, Winter, 1978.
 Britton, John N.H., and James M. Gilmour. The Weakest Link: A Technological Perspective on Canadian Industrial Development. Ottawa: The Science Council of Canada, October 1978.
 "Building Self-Reliance in Canada." GATT-Fly Report, 7, No. 1, February 1987.
 Burtless, Gary. "Inequality in America: Where Do We Stand?" The Brookings Review, Summer 1987.
 Byers, Roderick, B. "Canadian Defence and Defence Procurement: Implications for Economic Policy." In G.R. Winham, ed. Selected Problems in Formulating Foreign Economic Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Calvert, John. Government Limited: The Corporate Takeover of the Public Sector in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1984.
 Cameron, Duncan, ed. The Free Trade Papers. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1986.
 Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops. Ethical Choices and Political Challenges: Ethical Reflections on the Future of Canada's SocioEconomic Order. Ottawa: CCCB, December 1983.Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops. Ethical Choices and Political Challenges: Free Trade at What Cost? Ottawa: Concacan Inc., 1987. Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops. Ethical Relfections on the Economic Crisis. Ottawa: Concacan Inc., 1983.
 Canadian Labour Congress. "Full Employment and Fairness-the Workers' Agenda for Canada." Document No. 18. 16th Constitutional Convention, 1986.
 Canadian Labour Congress. "Our Canada or Theirs? Workers Confront the Corporate Blueprint." Document No. 19. 16th Constitutional Convention, 1986.
 Canadian Labour Congress. Position Paper on Canada-United States Free Trade. July 1985.
 Canadian Labour Congress. The Transportation Acts of 1986. Ottawa, March 26, 1987.
 Clark-Jones, Melissa. A Staple State: Canadian Industrial Resources in the Cold War. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.
 Clarkson, Stephen. Canada and the Reagan Challenge. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1985.
 La coalition Qu6becois d'opposition au libre-6change. La politique sociale Canadienne et le libre-6change. Montreal: CSN, CFL, CTC, UPA, 1986.
 Cohen, Marjorie. Free Trade and the Future of Women's Work. Toronto: Garamond Press and the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1987.
 Confederation of Canadian Unions. Too High a Price: A Policy Paper on "Free" Trade.       Vancouver: CCU, 1987.
 Conference of Socialist Economists. The Alternative Economic Strategy: A Labour Movement Response to the Economic Crisis. London: CSE Books, 1980.
 Crotty, James R. "On Keynes and Capital Flight." Journal of Economic Literature, 21, March 1983.
 Crozier, Michael, Samuel P. Huntington, and J. Watanuki. The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission. New York: New York University Press, 1975.
 Djao, A.W. Inequality and Social Policy. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, 1983.
 Drache, Daniel, and Duncan Cameron, eds. The Other Macdonald Report. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1985.
 "The Economic Crisis." Special Issue of Studies in Political Economy, No. 11, Summer 1983.
 Eisenstein, Zillah. "Liberalism, Feminism and the Reagan State." In Ralph Miliband et al., eds. Socialist Register 1987: Conservatism in Britain and America. London: Merlin Press, 1987.
 Flaherty, D.H., and W.R. McKercher, eds. Southern Exposure: Canadian Perspectives on the United States. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1986.
 Fowke, Vernon C. The National Policy and the Wheat Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1957.
 GATT-Fly. Free Trade or Self Reliance. Toronto: GATT-Fly, 1987.
 Ghosh, Jayati, "Developing Countries and World Economy." Economic and Political Weekly, 21, No. 41, October 11, 1986.
 Gindin, Sam. "Free Trade and Competitiveness: Developing a Left Alternative." Working Papers, No. 4. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1985.
 Globerman, Steven, and Aidan Vining. "Canadian Culture under Free Trade." Canadian Business Review, 13, No. 2, Summer 1986.
 Glyn, Andrew, "Capital Flight and Exchange Controls." New Left Review, No. 155, January-February 1986.Gonick, Cy. The Great Economic Debate. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1987.
 Gonick, Cy. Inflation or Depression: The Continuing Crisis of the CanadianEconomy. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1975.
 Grayson, J. Paul. Plant Closures and De-Skilling: Three Case Studies. Ottawa: Social Science Council of Canada, 1986.
 Green, Francis. "Some Macroeconomic Omens for Reagan and Thatcher." Capital and Class, No. 30, Winter 1986.
 Gunderson, Morley, et al., eds. Unemployment: International Perspectives. Toronto: Centre for Industrial Relations by the University of Toronto Press, 1987.
 Hager, Wolfgang. "Little Europe, Wider Europe and Western Economic Co-operation." Journal of Common Market Studies, 21, Nos. 1 & 2, September/December, 1982.
 Heilbroner, Robert L. The Worldly Philosophers. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961.
 "The Hollow Corporation." Special Report. Business Week, No. 2935, March 3, 1986.
 Holmes, John, and Colin Leys, eds. Frontyard, Backyard: The Americas in Global Crisis. Toronto: Between-the-Lines, 1987Kahler, Miles. "European Protectionism in Theory and Practice." World Politics, 36, No. 4, July 1985.
 Katzenstein, Peter J. Small States in World Markets. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.
 Keohane, Robert. After Hegemony: Co-operation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
 Keynes, John Maynard. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1964.
 Keynes, John Maynard. "National Self Sufficiency." Yale Review, 22, June 1933.
 Kirsh, Sharon L. Unemployment: Its Impact on Body and Soul. Toronto: Canadian Mental Health Association, 1984.
 Krieger, Joel. Reagan, Thatcher and the Politics of Decline. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.    -
 Kuttner, Robert. The Economic Illusion. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1984.
 Laxer, James. Leap of Faith: Free Trade and the Future of Canada. Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1986.
 Labor Research Association. Economic Notes, various issues, 1986 and 1987.
 Lanoie, Claude. "Comparisons of the Canadian and United States Food and Beverage Industries." Food Market Commentary, 7, No. 3, September 1985.
 LaPierre, Laurier, ed. If You Love This Country: Facts and Feelings on Free Trade. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1987.
 Lazar, Fred. The New Protectionism: Non-Tariff Barriers and Their Effects on Canada. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. for the Canadian Institute for Economic Policy, 1981.
 Leslie, Peter. Federal State, National Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.
 Lipsey, Richard G. and Murray G. Smith. Canada's Trade Options. Toronto: C.D. Howe Institute, 1985.
 Litvak, Isaiah A. "Free Trade with the U.S.: The Conflicting Views of Canadian Business." Business Quarterly, Spring 1986.
 Lumsden, Ian, ed. Close the 49th Parallel. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970.
 Lundberg, Erik. "The Rise and Fall of the Swedish Model." Journal of Economic Literature, 23, No. 1, March 1985.
 MacDonald, Neil B. Locational Advantages in the Farm Machinery Industry. Ottawa: Royal Commission on Farm Machinery, 1968.
 MacEwan, Arthur. "International Debt and Banking: Rising Instability within the General Crisis." Science & Society, 50, No. 2, Summer 1986.
 Macmillan, Katie. The Canadian Common Market. Calgary: Canada West Foundation, October 1985.
 McQuaig, Linda. Behind Closed Doors. Toronto: Penguin Books of Canada, 1987.Matthews, Ralph. The Creation of Regional Dependency. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983.
 Miliband, Ralph, et al., eds. Socialist Register 1987: Conservatism in Britain and America: Rhetoric and Reality. London: The Merlin Press, 1987.
 Nayar, Deepak. "International Relocation of Production and Industrialization in LDCs." Economic and Political Weekly, 18, No. 31, July 30, 1983.
 Nelson, Joyce. "Canada Dry: Pipedreams and Freshwater Politics." This Magazine, 21, No. 5, October 1987.
 Nelson, Joyce. "Losing It in the Lobby." This Magazine, 20, October/ November 1986.
 New Democratic Party. "An Alternative Strategy: Fair Trade vs. Free Trade." Ottawa, March 1985.
 Nome, Kenneth, ed. Disparities and Interregional Adjustment. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 North-South Institute. Women in Industry. Ottawa: North-South Institute, 1985.
 Ontario Public Service Employees Union. Free Trade and the Public Sector. Toronto: OPSEU, August 1986.
 Pammet, Jon. H., and Brian W. Tomlin, eds. The Integration Question. Toronto: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
 Parboni, Ricardo. "The Dollar Weapon: From Nixon to Reagan." New Left Review, No. 158, July/August 1986.
 Phillips, Paul, and Stephen Watson. "From Mobilization to Continentalism: The Canadian Economy in the Post-Depression Period." In Michael S. Cross and Gregory S. Kealey, eds. Modern Canada: 1930-1980s. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1984.
 Pinder, John, ed. National Industrial Strategies and the World Economy. Towowa, N.J.: Allanheld, Osmun, 1982.
 Radwanski, George. Ontario Study of the Service Sector. Toronto: Ministry of Treasury and Economics, December 1986.
 Ray, D. Michael. "The Location of United States Manufacturing Subsidiaries in Canada." Economic Geography, 17, No. 3, July 1971.
 "The Reindustrialization of America." Special Issue. Business Week, No. 2643, June 30,      1980.
 Riddell, W. Craig, ed. Adapting to Change: Labour Market Adjustment in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Rotstein, Abraham. Rebuilding from Within; Remedies for Canada's Ailing Economy. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co. for the Canadian Institute for Economic Policy, 1984.
 Rugman, Alan M., and Sheila Douglas. "The Strategic Management of Multinationals and World Product Mandating." Canadian Public Policy, 12, June 1986.
 Saul, John Ralston. "The Secret Life of the Branch-Plant Executive." Report on Business Magazine, 4, No. 7, January 1988.
 Saunders, Christopher, ed. The Political Economy of New and Old Industrial Countries. London: Butterworth, 1981.
 Savoie, Donald J. Regional Economic Development. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986.
 Sharp, Mitchell. "More Free Trade." Policy Options, 8, No. 5, June 1987.
 Sharpe, Andrew. "Can Canada Compete?" Canadian Business Review, 12, No. 4, 1985; 13, No. 1, Spring 1986.
 Shipman, William D. Trade and Investment Across the Northeast Boundary. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1986.
 Sideri, S. Trade and Power. Rotterdam: Rotterdam University Press, 1970.
 Sinclair, Scott. "Free Trade and Regional Development Policy." Toronto: Coalition      Against Free Trade, September 10, 1987, unpublished paper.
 Sklar, Holly, ed. Trilateralism. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1980.
 Stairs, Denis, and Gilbert R. Winham, eds. The Politics of Canada's Economic Relationship with the United States. Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Statistics Canada. Arts and Culture: A Statistical Profile. Catalogue No. 87-527.
 Steger, Debra P. "Recent Developments in Canada-U.S. Trade Relations." Review of International Business Law, 1, No. 1, April 1987.
 Stone, Frank. Canada, the GATT and the International Trade System. Montreal: The Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1984.
 Therborn, Goran. Why Some Peoples are More Unemployed than Others. London: Verso, 1986.
 Tichy, Gunther. "Strategy and Implementation of Employment Policy in Austria." Kyklos, 37, No. 3, 1984.
 "31 Million Reasons to Fight Unemployment." OECD Observer, No. 144, January 1987.
 Turk, Jim. Free Trade with the United States: The Implications for Canada. Publication No. 16. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1986.
 Turk, Jim. "GATT Will Get Us Too---The Implications of Multilateral Free Trade." Free Trade or Self-Reliance. Toronto: GATT-Fly, 1987.
 Wachtel, Howard. The Money Mandarins. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986.Walters, Peter. "Distributing Decline: Swedish Social Democrats and the Crisis of the Welfare State." Government & Opposition, 20, No. 3, Summer 1985.
 Warnock, John W. Free Trade and the New Right Agenda. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1988.
 Warnock, John W. "Free Trade Fantasies: The Case of the Farm Implements Industry." This Magazine, 9, Nos. 5 & 6, November-December 1975.
 Warnock, John W. Partner to Behemoth: The Military Policy of a Satellite Canada. Toronto: New Press, 1970.
 Warnock, John W. The Politics of Hunger: The Global Food System. Toronto: Methuen, 1987.
 Warnock, John W. Profit Hungry: The Food Industry in Canada. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1978.
 Warren, Jack W. "Auto Part Manufacturers Battle Imports." Canadian Business Review, 12, No. 4, Winter 1985.
 Watkins, Mel. "The Staple Theory Revisited." Journal of Canadian Studies, 12, No. 5, Winter 1977.
 Whalley, John, ed. Canada-United States Free Trade. Toronto: Universityof Toronto Press for the Macdonald Royal Commission, 1985.
 Williams, Glen. Not for Export: Toward a Political Economy of Canada's Arrested Industrialization. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1986.
 Wilson, Elizabeth. "Thatcherism and Women: After Seven Years." In Ralph Miliband et al., eds. The Socialist Register 1987: Conservatism in Britain and North America. London: Merlin Press, 1987.
 Wolfe, David A. The Delicate Balance: The Changing Economic Role of the State in Canada. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1980.
 Wolfe, David A. "Mercantilism, Liberalism and Keynesianism: Changing Forms of State Intervention in Capitalist Economies." Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, S, Nos. 1 & 2, Winter/Spring 1981.       

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